Tradisionele resepte

Sea Urchin, 'n stapelvoedsel van Sushi, is in gevaar om te verdwyn

Sea Urchin, 'n stapelvoedsel van Sushi, is in gevaar om te verdwyn

Alhoewel die see -egelbok steeds baie gesog bly, staar die visserybedryf 'n ernstige agteruitgang in die gesig

iStock/Thinkstock

Oorbevissing en 'n indringende spesie kelp hou ernstige bedreigings in vir die seeborrelbevolking.

Daar is niks besonder uitnodigends aan die egel (soms ook die see-egel genoem) van buite nie, maar die donker en stadig bewegende wese is 'n belangrike deel van die kombuis van Japan, China, Chili en die Middellandse See-streke om maar 'n paar te noem . Zeegee, of uni, is 'n lekkerny in groot aanvraag in Japan en onder sjefs van die haute cuisine regoor die wêreld.

Volgens die berig van The Atlantic staar die vissersbedryf, wat in Nova Scotia gesentreer is, nou 'n afname in die bedryf van $ 2,5 miljoen.

Die seekoeipopulasie van die Atlantiese Oseaan staar 'n indringersoort in die gesig, en die probleem van oorbevissing vanweë die gewildheid daarvan het die klein, stekelige wese in gevaar gestel om vir altyd weg te gaan.

In die afgelope twee dekades het die 'Green Gold Rush' Nova Scotia, Maine, Boston en ander 'eekhubs' oorgeneem.

In die Verenigde State word die agteruitgang van die egels toegeskryf aan oorbevissing, maar in Nova Scotia staar die egel 'n indringende kelpsoort in die gesig wat see -egels verstrik en verhoed dat hulle hul voedselbronne bereik. Vissers moet die egels uit die kelp skeur en die risiko loop om deur 'n giftige piek beseer te word.

Tye Zinck, 'n paar dekades lank 'n seeborrelvisser, het opgemerk dat hy die kelp nog nooit voor hierdie seisoen gesien het nie en dat die einde van die bedryf in Nova Scotia nader kom.

'Die enigste ding wat erger is as visvang, is om dit op te maak,' het hy aan The Atlantic gesê. 'Ek hoop om ten minste nog 'n seisoen daaruit te haal.'

Karen Lo is 'n mede -redakteur van The Daily Meal. Volg haar op Twitter @appleplexy.


Perlemoen

Perlemoen ( / ˈ æ b ə l oʊ n iː / (luister) of / ˌ æ b ə ˈ l oʊ n iː / via Spaans abulón, van Rumsen aulón) is 'n algemene naam vir enige van 'n groep klein tot baie groot mariene diertjies in die familie Haliotidae. [4]

  • EuhaliotisWenz, 1938
  • EurotisHabe & Kosuge, 1964
  • ExohaliotisCotton & Godfrey, 1933
  • Haliotis (Haliotis)Linné, 1758
  • Haliotis (Nordotis)Habe & Kosuge, 1964
  • Haliotis (Notohaliotis)Cotton & Godfrey, 1933
  • Haliotis (Padollus)Montfort, 1810
  • Haliotis (Paua)C. Fleming, 1953
  • Haliotis (Sulculus)H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854
  • MarinaurisIredale, 1927
  • NeohaliotisCotton & Godfrey, 1933
  • NordotisHabe & Kosuge, 1964
  • NotohaliotisCotton & Godfrey, 1933
  • OvinotisKatoen, 1943
  • PadollusMontfort, 1810
  • PauaC. Fleming, 1953
  • SanhaliotisIredale, 1929
  • SkismotisGrey, 1856
  • TeinotisH. Adams & A. Adams, 1854
  • TinotisP. Fischer, 1885(ongeldig: ongeregverdigde aanpassing van Teinotis)
  • UsahaliotisHabe & Kosuge, 1964

Ander algemene name is oorskille, see -ore, en selde skaapvis of skaapskille in dele van Australië, ormer in die UK, perlemoen in Suid -Afrika, en die Maori -naam vir drie spesies in Nieu -Seeland is pāua. [5]

Perlemoen is mariene slakke. Hulle taksonomie plaas hulle in die familie Haliotidae, wat slegs een genus bevat, Haliotis, wat eens ses subgenera bevat het. Hierdie subgenera het alternatiewe voorstellings van geword Haliotis. [4] Die aantal spesies wat wêreldwyd erken word, wissel tussen 30 [6] en 130 [7] met meer as 230 spesies-vlak taxa beskryf. Die mees omvattende behandeling van die familie beskou 56 spesies as geldig, met 18 addisionele subspesies. [8]

Die skulpe van perlemoene het 'n lae, oop spiraalstruktuur en word gekenmerk deur verskeie oop respiratoriese porieë in 'n ry naby die buitenste rand van die dop. Die dik binneste laag van die dop is saamgestel uit nacre (pêrelmoer), wat in baie spesies baie iriserend is, wat 'n reeks sterk, veranderlike kleure tot gevolg het, wat die doppe aantreklik maak vir mense as dekoratiewe voorwerpe, juweliersware , en as 'n bron van kleurvolle pêrelmoer.

Die vleis van perlemoene word algemeen beskou as 'n gewenste voedsel, en word rou of gekook deur verskillende kulture.


Sonder kelp loop die lewensbestaan ​​in gevaar

Die duikers het aan die werk gegaan en pers egels van die onderkant van die baai af geskraap in die hoop dat dit die kelp, wat 93 persent in Noord -Kalifornië gedaal het, weer kan laat groei.

Cynthia Catton, 'n omgewingswetenskaplike van die California Department of Fish and Wildlife, en 'n klein span stagiaires sit op 'n boot en tel die egels wat duikers na die oppervlak haal, om 'n idee te kry van hoe dit met hulle gaan.

Die verhaal van die kelp se verdwyning is die verhaal van 'n verweefde voedselstelsel wat breek en in die proses mense se lewensbestaan ​​bedreig. Van die eerste mense wat alarm gemaak het oor die pers egels, het dr. Catton gesê, was kommersiële rooiseiers.

Een van hulle is Gary Trumper, wat al meer as 30 jaar rooi egels oes. Rooi egels, groter as pers egels, is kommersieel lewensvatbaar omdat mense dit eet - of meer spesifiek hul geslagskliere. Die lekkerny is meer bekend onder sushi -liefhebbers as uni.

Maar die groeiende bevolking van pers -egels het die rooi egels uitgedaag vir die beskikbare kelp. Sonder kelp het die rooi egels verhonger.

Dit verminder die waarde van die kommersiële vissery in Noord -Kalifornië van $ 3,6 miljoen in 2013 tot minder as $ 600 000 in 2016. Baie stropers het verder gegaan. 'Dit is waarskynlik 10 of 15 ouens wat dit nog in die hawe doen', het mnr. Trumper gesê, in 'n kroeg naby die glip in Fort Bragg gesit waar hy sy boot dok. 'Maar daar was vroeër waarskynlik 100.'

Diegene wat nog werk, neem groter risiko's, gaan verder om in dieper waters te duik vir hul vangs. In die ou dae het meneer Trumper 10 tot 50 voet geduik.

'Nou gaan ons 70 tot 110 voet,' het hy gesê.

Dit is gevaarliker om so diep te duik, sê meneer Trumper, wat die risiko's van sy beroep ken. In 1987 was hy deel van 'n duikbemanning met wie se boot drie mense omgeslaan het. Op dieper dieptes loop die risiko van dekompressie -siekte, wat dodelik kan wees, mnr. Trumper en ander egelsduikers.


Kommentaar

Seewierbrode is al lankal bekend, beslis voor die opkoms van Kayser, en ja, dit is bekend dat dit seewierekstrak gebruik.

Omer Gevaert het geskryf oor die gebruik van seewier om te verhoed dat die fermenterende brood suur hoop.

Of het dit? Ek het dit nie geweet nie. Baie dankie vir die insette, suave. :)

Maar die veronderstelling hierbo dat M. Kayser die inspirasie gekry het, was wat ek iewers in 'n artikel/bloginskrywing gelees het, nie my uitvinding nie. )

Dit is goed om te weet dat seewierekstrak vir sommige brode gebruik word, hoewel die raaisel nog steeds bestaan ​​as die betrokke brood een daarvan was. My dogter onthou beslis nie dat sy 'naam' in die naam van die brood gesien het nie. Oor die algemeen, as seewierekstrak by die bestanddele ingesluit is, sou hulle dit dan in die naam van die brood noem, weet u dit toevallig?

Seewier in brood. dit gee my allerhande idees.

Ek bars uit van die lag. letterlik. : D: D: D Het ek vir jou gesê hoe lief ek jou het? : bl

L. l. l. kyk. ok vorentoe om te sien waarmee u vorendag kom, txfarmer. : D

kunsmis in my tuin, het uitstekend gewerk. Viooltjies het heerlik gesmaak! :)

Ja, ek het gelees dat 'n paar kusdorpe in Brittanje destyds seewier as kunsmis gebruik het.

Sien uit na die dag waarop Maison Kayser 'tuinkunsmis' op hul lys met broodbestanddele lys. : bl

Baie interessant! Ek is seker een van my bakkerystudente het verlede jaar 'n idee gekry om 'n seewierbrood vir 'n bakkompetisie te maak. En sy bron was niemand minder nie as M. Bertinet!

ps. sy brood was ook uitstekend!

O ja, duidelik vergeet daarvan! Dit staan ​​in sy eerste boek (Deeg), is dit nie? :: gaan kyk na die boek ::

Ek het vroeër iets soortgelyks in Bretagne gedoen met behulp van plaaslike seewier, maar hier vind ek Japannese wakame baie goed. Omdat dit van die see hou, is dit fantasties met die seekos.

Wakame is die een wat gebruik word vir Maison Kayser's Pain aux Algues in Japan. Nou verstaan ​​ek wat die artikel wat beweer dat 'Eric Kayser die inspirasie in Japan gekry het' nie die inspirasie vir die gebruik van seewier beteken nie, maar vir die gebruik van wakame in plaas van meer tradisionele Franse seewier. *gloeilamp*

Toe ek die resep sien, het die idee om iets so Japannees te gebruik my eintlik afgemaak. Ek het te veel snaakse kombinasies van bestanddele vir brood (en dikwels vir ander soorte Europese/Westerse kosse) in Japan gesien om die plaaslike smaak te behaag, met baie tradisionele Japannese kos om te kombineer met iets baie Europees/Westers. Sommige van hulle werk wel, let wel, maar ander is eenvoudig vreemd! Japannese is baie goed daarmee om baie soorte 'vreemde' kosse op 'n baie outentieke manier te maak, maar soms is dit so. jy weet. : bl

In sy tweede boek (Kors) kry M. Bertinet nog 'n Japanse brood 'Japanese Sushi Rolls' wat gebruik 'nori', rol dit tussen deeg soos. sushi rolle. sit in 'n Japannese lakbak met 'n bottel onthalwe. Meneer Bertinet, as u dit lees, moet u dit asseblief nie meer doen nie. bl

Ons het wel seekos met die eerste brood gehad. Dit was uitstekend saam met gemarineerde haring + maaskaas. Eintlik, toe ek die brood ruik, kon ek aan niks anders dink as 'n soort seekos om so 'n unieke geur te kry nie, so dit was geen idee nie.

Dankie dat u 'n bietjie van my verouderde grys selle wakker gemaak het, Andy! )

Weet nie of jy hierdie berig van Syd 'n rukkie terug op sy blog gekry het nie, maar hy het die idee geneem om see -geure met brood te kombineer in een van die mees unieke rigtings wat ek nog ooit gesien het, geïnspireer deur 'n brood wat in Taiwan gemaak is . Dit is ietwat Ek is seker, en beslis in kleur, op dieselfde gebied van seewier en brood, maar aansienlik gekerf in smaak. http://www.thefreshloaf.com/node/23179/squid-ink-baguette

As u ooit swart pasta met inkvis ink gemaak het, het u 'n goeie idee van die smaak. Ek dink dit is natuurlik vir enige tipe seekosbroodjie, of vis/seekosgereg wat in botter gebraai is. 'N Baie interessante plasing wat u moontlik sal geniet as u dit nog nie gesien het nie.

Jammer, ek het jou nie voorheen gewaarsku nie, maar jy het pas die gevaarsone betree, Franko. As u my aan die gang hou met inkvis, sal u probleme ondervind om my te stop. EK HET NOU NET. LIEFDE. SQUID. INK.

Dit word tradisioneel nie in Japan gebruik nie, behalwe vir baie min gebiede, ondanks ons berugte reputasie dat ons elke stukkie van elke bekende vissoort in elke vorm gebruik, maar Italiaans is die gewildste 'Westerse' kos in Japan sedert die middel van ' 80's, en sedertdien is almal dol oor pasta met inkvis, risotto met inkvis ink, ens. Ek was toe al in die Verenigde Koninkryk, en ek het my eerste smaak van inkvis in Italië gehad en ek was dadelik verslaaf. Sedertdien, wanneer ek inkvis ink op 'n spyskaart in Italiaans/Spaanse restaurante sien, bestel ek (en my dogter) dit beslis. ons tande en lippe swart verf. (ons is geneig om baie van vreugde te glimlag as ons squik ink eet, so dit wys regtig. p)

In elk geval. In Japan het dit so gewild geword dat sommige bakkerye en restaurante baguette met ink-ink begin maak (die donker in die middel, tussen gewone baguette) en baie tuisboere het dit ook self begin maak. Dit was in die 90's, dink ek. Baie broodboeke het ook 'n resep of twee vir inkvisbrode.

Dit lyk asof baie lande in die Verre Ooste en Suidoos -Asië die afgelope paar jaar baie invloed gehad het op Japannese voedseltonele, veral brood (ek hoop dat baie TFL'ers uit daardie streek dit sou getuig). was ook een van die 'ingevoerde idees' uit Japan, hoewel hulle in Japan nie suiker, ens., byvoeg om die deeg te verryk nie, soos in Taiwan. Die deeg vir hul baguette met inkvis -ink is min of meer dieselfde as standaard -baguette, maar baie maer, maar met die rykdom en diepte van smaak wat uit inkvis -ink kom, is dit self. Hulle het verskillende soorte ink -baguette met inktvis of klein, rustige pitte met 'n bietjie vulsel in die deeg, soos neute, edamame (jong groen sojabone), gekapte en gebakte spek/pancetta, ens. Ens. (Ek wonder of txfarmer dit kyk. p)

My plaaslike visverkoper het onlangs inkvis in klein sakkies begin opsit, en ek het hom amper 'n hartstogtelike soen -drukkie gegee toe ek dit op sy toonbank kry. Uiteraard is 'ink -ink baguette' sedertdien op my 'Bread to Bake' -lys. Ek dink daaraan om dit te maak sodra my T55 -proewe (soort) voltooi is. )


2. Takoyaki Doraku Wanaka

My vriend het my hierheen geneem op my mees onlangse reis na Osaka. Volgens hom is dit een van die gewildste takoyaki -kettings in die stad. Hierdie een was bedek met die klassieke kombinasie van takoyaki -sous, mayo, wasbak en bonito -vlokkies. As dit die eerste keer is wat u Takoyaki in Osaka probeer, is dit hoe u dit moet hê.

Afgesien van die verskeidenheid toppe, is die verskil tussen die takoyaki tussen stalletjies: hoe vloeibaar of dik die konsekwentheid daarvan is. Ek dink dit hang af van hoe lank hulle op die rooster gebly het. Hoe langer hulle kook, hoe minder taai word hulle. Dit was meer aan die loperige kant.

Ons het na die tak in die Kita -omgewing gegaan, maar Takoyaki Doraku Wanaka het verskeie takke in die stad. As dit by takoyaki kom, is dit een van die beste eetplekke in Osaka.

Takoyaki Doraku Wanaka

Takke: Verskeie takke
Werksure: Wissel per tak
Wat om te bestel: Takoyaki
Verwag om te betaal: JPY 500-800 vir 8-15 stuks


Inhoud

Die Stille Oseaan -blouvintonyn kom hoofsaaklik voor in die Noord -Stille Oseaan, wat wissel van die Oos -Asiatiese kus tot die westelike kus van Noord -Amerika. [1] [5] Dit is hoofsaaklik 'n pelagiese spesie wat in gematigde oseane voorkom, maar dit wissel ook in die trope en meer kusstreke. [1] Dit kom tipies van die oppervlak af tot 200 m (660 voet), [5] voor, maar is so diep as 550 m (1800 voet) aangeteken. [1]

Dit ontstaan ​​in die noordwestelike Filippynse See (byvoorbeeld buite Honshu, Okinawa en Taiwan) en in die see van Japan. [1] [11] Sommige hiervan migreer na die Oos -Stille Oseaan en keer na 'n paar jaar terug na die paai -terreine. [1] Dit is meer plaaslik aangeteken as besoeker aan die Suidelike Halfrond, insluitend Australië, Nieu -Seeland, die Golf van Papoea en Frans -Polinesië. [1] [5]

Daar word beskou dat die spesie slegs uit een voorraad bestaan. [3]

Termoregulering Wysig

Byna alle visse is koelbloedig (ektotermies). [12] Tuna- en makrielhaaie is egter warmbloedig: hulle kan hul liggaamstemperatuur reguleer. Warmbloedige visse beskik oor organe naby hul spiere retia mirabilia wat bestaan ​​uit 'n reeks minuut parallelle are en are wat die spiere voorsien en dreineer. Namate die warmer bloed in die are na die kieue terugkeer vir vars suurstof, kom dit in noue kontak met koue, nuut geoxygeneerde bloed in die are. Die stelsel dien as 'n teenstroom-warmtewisselaar, en die hitte van die bloed in die are word aan die kouer arteriële bloed oorgegee eerder as om by die kieue verlore te gaan. Die netto effek is minder hitteverlies deur die kieue. Vis uit warmer water verhoog hul temperatuur 'n paar grade, terwyl dié uit koue water dit tot 20 ° C (36 ° F) warmer kan verhoog as die omliggende see.

Die tonyn se vermoë om liggaamstemperatuur te handhaaf, het verskeie duidelike voordele bo ander seelewe. Dit hoef sy omvang nie volgens watertemperatuur te beperk nie, en word ook nie deur klimaatveranderinge oorheers nie. Die ekstra hitte wat aan die spiere verskaf word, is ook voordelig vanweë die gevolglike ekstra krag en spoed.

Stille Oseaan -blouvintuna's word volwassenheid op ongeveer 5 -jarige ouderdom, die lengte van die geslag word op 7-9 jaar geskat en op twee afsonderlike bronne is die lewensduur 15 jaar of 26 jaar. [1] By volwassenheid is dit ongeveer 1,5 m lank en weeg ongeveer 60 kg (130 lb). [1] Individue wat 2 m lank is, word gereeld gesien, en die maksimum gerapporteerde is 3 m (9,8 ft) lank en 450 kg (990 lb) in gewig. [5] Elders is 'n massa van tot 550 kg (1,210 lb) aangemeld vir die spesie. [13] Volgens die International Game Fish Association was die rekord van alle visvaarte 'n individu van 411,6 kg (907 lb) (Donna Pascoe) wat op 19 Februarie 2014 aan boord van die charterboot Gladiator tydens die Nasionale Toernooi gevang is. [14]

Paai vind plaas van April tot Augustus, maar die presiese tydsberekening hang af van die streek: Vroeg in die noordweste van die Filippynse See (die suidelike deel van sy broeibereik) en laat in die See van Japan (die noordelike deel van sy broeikas). [1] Groot wyfies kan meer eiers dra as kleintjies, en tussen 5 miljoen en 25 miljoen eiers is aangemeld. [1]

Stille Oseaan -blouvinne eet verskillende klein skolierinkvisse en visse, maar daar is ook aangeteken dat hulle sitbare diere, [5] pelagiese rooi krappe en krille neem. [11]


Inhoud

Handel Edit

Elke jaar word ongeveer 40 miljoen dollar se padda -bene internasionaal verhandel, met die meeste lande ter wêreld wat aan hierdie handel deelneem. [6] Frankryk, België en die Verenigde State is die grootste invoerders van paddas in die wêreld, terwyl Indonesië en China die grootste internasionale uitvoerders is. [6] Hoewel hierdie syfers nie verantwoordelik is vir die binnelandse verbruik nie, word die konserwatiewe raming van die produksie van kikkerplase per jaar in berekening gebring dat mense jaarliks ​​tot 3,2 miljard paddas regoor die wêreld verbruik. [6]

Gesondheid Redigeer

Die beweging van lewende of ongevriesde, ongeskikte amfibieë is 'n moontlike manier vir dodelike amfibiese siektes, soos Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis en Ranavirus oor die hele wêreld vervoer moet word, en ondanks aanbevelings oor die voorkoming van verspreiding van siektes deur die OIE, wat die internasionale verspreiding van epizootiese siektes reguleer, [7] het min lande hierdie aanbevelings as wet aangeneem.

In Kanada is die verkoop van vars of bevrore kikkerbene onwettig, tensy dit bepaal word dat dit vry is van bakterieë van die genus Salmonella, volgens die amptelike metode MFO-10, Microbial Examination of Froglegs. [8]

Omgewing Wysig

Baie omgewingsbewustes dring daarop aan dat die gebruik van paddas beperk word - veral dié wat uit die natuur geoes word - omdat amfibiese bevolkings afneem en paddas 'n noodsaaklike element van ekosisteme is. Natuurbewaarders waarsku dat die gastronomiese vraag na paddas die plaaslike bevolking ernstig uitput. [9] Paddas is sensitief vir omgewingsveranderinge, siektes, agteruitgang van habitat en besoedeling.

Die uitsondering hierop is waar die Amerikaanse brulpadda nie inheems is nie en bekendgestel is. In hierdie ekosisteme kan Amerikaanse brulpaddas die plaaslike amfibiese bevolkings afbreek, die ekosisteem se balans versteur en ook 'n negatiewe impak op ander wildsoorte hê.

Godsdienstige Edit

Volgens die Joodse dieetwette word alle reptiele en amfibieë as onrein diere beskou. Daarom is kikkerbene nie kosjer nie en is dit verbied vir oplettende Jode in die Ortodokse Judaïsme. Meer liberale strome van Judaïsme, soos hervorming, verbied egter nie die eet van diere wat nie kosjer is nie.

Padda vleis word beskou as haraam (nie-halal) volgens die algemene Islamitiese dieetwette. Paddavleis is nie halaal nie, aangesien paddas saam met miere, bye en seevoëls diere is wat nie deur Moslems doodgemaak moet word nie. Hierdie haraam Die status het onenigheid veroorsaak in Demak, Indonesië, waar die owerhede die eienaars van die swikee (padda -sop) -restaurante aangemoedig het om nie swikee met die stad Demak te verbind nie, aangesien dit Demak se beeld as die eerste Islamitiese stad in Java sou aantas, en ook deur die inwoners daarteen gekant is. wat hoofsaaklik die Shafi'i -skool volg wat die gebruik van paddas verbied. [10] Binne die Islamitiese dieetwet is daar 'n paar debatte en verskille oor die verbruik van padda. Die hoofstroom Islamitiese madhhab (skool) van Shafi'i, Hanafi en Hanbali verbied streng die gebruik van paddas, maar volgens die Maliki -skool mag slegs die groen padda wat algemeen in rysvelde voorkom, geëet word, [11] terwyl ander spesies, veral dié met blase , word as onrein beskou.

In die Middeleeuse en vroeë moderne Europa is paddas nie as vleis geklassifiseer nie en kon hulle dus saam met vis en voëlvleis geëet word tydens die Christelike vastyd. Monnike in Lorraine is aangeteken as eetende paddas gedurende die vastyd in die 13de eeu. [12] Die beroemde Franse sjef, Grimod de La Reynière, het vroeg in die 19de eeu geskryf dat paddas bekend staan ​​as Alouettes de Carême (Lentelerke). [13]

Frankryk Redigeer

Padda bene of cuisses de grenouille is 'n tradisionele gereg wat veral in die Dombes -streek voorkom (departement van Ain). Die wydverspreide verbruik van padda se bene is relatief onlangs, wat binne die afgelope tweehonderd jaar plaasgevind het. [ aanhaling nodig ]

China Redigeer

Kikker, bekend as 「田鸡」 (veldhoender) wanneer dit in die kombuis beskryf word, word bene gereeld in China geëet, veral in die tradisie van die Suid -Chinese kookkuns. In sommige gebiede van China, soos Sichuan, word op groot skaal met brulpaddas en varkpaddas geboer. [14]

In die Chinese kombuis word kikkerbene gewoonlik gebraai en gemeng met ligte speserye, gestoof, gebraai of tot 'n gewilde gereg in die Kantonese kombuis gemaak.

Chinese styl, Singapoerse kruie -padda -sop

Paddas word grootgemaak vir kos in 'n klein plastiekomhulsel in 'n dam in Hubei, China

Indonesië Redigeer

In die Indonesiese kombuis staan ​​die padda-sop bekend as swikee of swaai, waarskynlik deur die Chinese gemeenskap in Indonesië gebring en gewild in die Chinese Indonesiese kombuis. [15] Swikee is hoofsaaklik padda-been sop met 'n sterk smaak van knoffel, gingers en gegiste sojabone (tauco), vergesel van seldery of pietersielieblare. Swikee is 'n tipiese gereg van Purwodadi Grobogan, in die provinsie Sentraal -Java. Daar is ook kikkerbene gebraai in margarien en soet sojasous of tamatiesous, gekapte en diep gebraaide, gebraaide of padda-eiers bedien in piesangblare (pepes tel kodok). Die gedroogde en knapperige gebraaide padda word ook verteer krupuk kraker, die smaak is soortgelyk aan gebraaide visvel. [16]

Indonesië is die grootste uitvoerder van paddavleis ter wêreld en voer jaarliks ​​meer as 5.000 ton paddavleis uit, meestal na Frankryk, België en Luxemburg. [9] Die meeste voorraad kikkerbene in Wes -Europa is afkomstig van kikkerplase in Indonesië, maar daar is kommer dat padda -bene uit Indonesië gestroop word van wilde padda -bevolkings wat wilde amfibieë in gevaar kan stel. [9]

Italië Redigeer

Paddas is 'n algemene voedsel in die noordelike deel van Italië, veral in Piemonte en Lombardy en in hierdie twee streke, veral in die Vercelli -omgewing in Piemonte en in die Pavia- en Lomellina -gebiede in Lombardy. Op hierdie plekke is paddas deel van die ou kulinêre tradisie en 'n tipiese stapelvoedsel. Die gebruik van paddas hou hoofsaaklik verband met die beskikbaarheid van diere as gevolg van die landelike aktiwiteite en die tipiese landbou op hierdie plekke. [17]

Die groot voorkoms van paddas is hoofsaaklik te wyte aan die landbou wat tipies is vir hierdie gebiede wat nog altyd bekend was vir hul beroemde rys. Die groot verbouing van rys beteken dat kunsmatige waterkanale grootliks gebruik word om ryslande gedurende die groeiseisoen te oorstroom, wat 'n perfekte habitat vir paddas is. Gedurende die groeiperiode, terwyl velde oorstroom word, en nog meer tydens die dreinering van die lande, kom boere en ander gereeld bymekaar om paddas te gaan jag, gewapen met nette. Sommige dorpe organiseer selfs kollektiewe jagsessies en speletjies. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Paddas het baie kulinêre relevansie in hierdie gebiede gekry, met baie plattelandse dorpe wat kosfeeste aanbied sagre gefokus op paddas en waar paddas op verskillende maniere voorberei word. Dit vind gewoonlik plaas tydens die rysoesperiodes. Aangesien die gebruik van kikkers nou verbonde is aan rysproduksie, en dit is die geboorteland van die Italiaanse risotto, is een van die mees algemene geregte padda -risotto, risotto alle rane. Ander plaaslike padda -geregte sluit in dat hulle in eierbeslag gedoop word, broodkrummels word en dan gebraai word, of in sop en bredies.

Slowenië Redigeer

Padda bene (žabji kraki) is 'n gewilde gereg in die Sloweense kombuis, veral in die gebiede van Oos-Slowenië (Prekmurje en Noordoos-Steiermark). [18] Hulle is ook baie gewild in die land se hoofstad, Ljubljana, en word beskou as die "basis van die tradisionele stadskos van Ljubljana". [19] [20] Tot in die moderne tyd is dit tradisioneel as vaste kos beskou en was dit veral gewild in die lente. [19] Hulle is ook 'n gewilde tradisionele gereg in die Vipava -vallei in die weste van Slowenië en word bedien in talle restaurante in die Sloveense Littoral. [20]

Kroasië Redigeer

Kikkerpote is gewild in sommige dele van Kroasië, veral in die Gorski kotar streek in die noordweste van die land. Hulle word beskou as 'n spesialiteit in die Lokve -munisipaliteit, waar dit gaar, gebraai of in 'n stoofpot bedien word, soms met polenta aan die kant. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Spanje Redigeer

In die westelike deel van Spanje, Extremadura en Castilla y Leon, word padda -pote diep gebraai. Dit is 'n lekkerny onder sy burgers. Paddapote het ook 'n groot kookwaarde aan die kante van die Ebro. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Albanië Redigeer

In Albanië word paddabone as 'n baie lekker kos beskou. Paddas word meestal uit die natuur versamel. [21]

Griekeland Edit

In Griekeland hou die eet van paddas veral verband met die stad Ioannina en die aangrensende meer Pamvotida. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Roemenië Redigeer

In Roemenië staan ​​eetbare paddas bekend as pui de baltă (dam hoender). Die bene word gepaneer en gebraai. [22]

Verenigde State Redigeer

Kikkerpote word in dele van die suide van die Verenigde State geëet, veral in die diep suid- en Golfstate, waar die Franse invloed meer prominent is, waaronder South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi en Louisiana. Hulle word ook in die oostelike state geëet, maar nie so gereeld nie. Die mees algemene soorte paddas wat geëet word, is brulpaddas en luiperdkikkers, aangesien dit in die grootste deel van die land voorkom, insluitend die suide. Alhoewel die gebruik van wilde inheemse paddas oor die algemeen ontmoedig word, is die oes en kook van indringende brulpaddas, veral in die Wes -VSA, aangemoedig as 'n vorm van beheer en om die plaaslike kombuis te bevorder. [23]

Sommige kookmetodes sluit in broodkrummels vir eier/kraker of gekap. Hulle word gebraai of gebraai. Diepgebraaide paddabene kan ook op kermisse gevind word.

Coon, possum, patryse, prairiehen en paddas was een van die tariewe wat Mark Twain as deel van die Amerikaanse kookkuns opgeteken het. [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34]

Caribbean Edit

Berghoender (Leptodactylus fallax) is paddas vernoem na hul habitat en geur wat in Montserrat en Dominica geëet word. Die paddas word nou kritiek bedreig. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Verenigde Koninkryk Wysig

Gekookte bene van kikkerbene is ontdek in 'n argeologiese opgrawing in Amesbury Wiltshire, wat dateer uit tussen 7596 en 6250 vC, 'n bewys dat dit deel was van die plaaslike dieet. Sommige beskou dit as 'n bewys dat Britte dit voor die Franse begin eet het. [35] Vir 'n paar eeue word paddas egter vir die Britte as afstootlik beskou. [36] "Kikker" is sedert die laat 18de eeu 'n Engelse bynaam vir 'n Franse persoon. [37] Aan die einde van die 19de eeu het die Franse restaurateur, Auguste Escoffier, probeer om hulle 'nimfe' te herdoop in 'n ydele poging om dit aan Londense eetplekke te verkoop. [36] In die afgelope dekades het avontuurlustige Britse sjefs padda -beengeregte aan hul spyskaarte voorgestel, veral Heston Blumenthal, wie se resepte padda blancmange bevat. [38]

Australië, Nieu -Seeland en Kanada Wysig

In Australië en Nieu -Seeland is paddas meer eksoties, word gewoonlik by Asiatiese of Franse restaurante geëet en veral die agterpote is die prioriteit. In Kanada kom hulle 'n bietjie meer voor, veral in die ooste en noordooste van Kanada.


Piesangkuns in die pandemie

Foto: Anna Chojnicka via Republiekwêreld.
Sy kneus piesangs om kuns te maak.

Connie Chang het so 'n snaakse en inspirerende verhaal Washington Post! Jy gaan van hierdie een hou!

Anna Chojnicka was verveeld toe sy verlede jaar in haar woonstel in Londen in kwarantyn geplaas is weens 'n vermeende geval van covid-19. Sy was so verveeld dat sy afwesig 'n piesang op haar kombuistafel opgetel het en haar vurk langs die buitekant van die skil begin hardloop het.

Die donker lyne wat op die skil verskyn, lyk vir haar interessant, en sy kyk hoe die merke geleidelik donkerder word. Sy het voortgegaan met krabbel en was gou gefassineer. Sy trek oë, neus en mond en besluit - tevrede met hoe dit lyk - om te kyk hoe ver sy daarmee kan gaan. …

Chhojnicka (35) het begin met die maak van foto's wat meer en meer ingewikkeld was met dieselfde metode - slegs druk, geen verf - totdat sy 'n Ethiopiese koffiepot en koppie geskets het. Haar nuwe stokperdjie is gebore. …

Sedert die eerste dag wat sy agtergekom het wat sy kan doen deur 'n piesangskil te kneus, plaas Chojnicka haar daaglikse skeppings op Twitter en Instagram, waar sy duisende volgelinge het. … Sy inspekteer haar daaglikse skets, neem 'n foto en eet dan die piesang - sy hou nie van afval nie.

Haar gewilde piesangkuns wissel van bekende tekenprente soos Homer Simpson (wat sy met selfvertroue 'selfportret' genoem het) tot sorgvuldig weergegee portrette van mense soos Greta Thunberg. Sy doen woordspelings, soos 'n rits om 'n piesang wat gedeeltelik geskil is. Sy word dikwels geïnspireer deur huidige gebeure, soos die inenting teen koronavirus. Sy het onlangs een gemaak met die slagspreuk ‘Bemagtigde vroue bemagtig vroue, en#8217 geleë in 'n yin-yang van twee vroue in profiel.

“‘Piesies het 'n baie mooi manier om van geel na swart te gaan deur goud, oranje en bruin, ’ het Chojnicka gesê, wat as kind van kuns gehou het, maar dit tot verlede jaar nog nie baie as volwassene beoefen het nie. . …

Haar kuns kom tot lewe deur oksidasie. Net soos appels oksideer piesangs, of word hulle bruin, namate die ensieme in hul selle vrygestel word en interaksie het met die suurstof in die lug. Selle wat beskadig is - omdat hulle met 'n vurk gestamp is of op die vloer geval het - word vinniger bruin. Deur te verander wanneer sy die merke aanbring, het Chojnicka ontdek dat sy 'n palet skakerings kan skep, wat tot verrassend ingewikkelde prente kan lei.

Ek het 'n kans gesien om dit goed te maak, het Chojnicka gesê, wie se dagtaak werk by 'n onderneming wat plaaslike ondernemings ondersteun wat op sosiale of omgewingsvraagstukke fokus.

Met die hulp van haar volgelinge op sosiale media, het sy ongeveer $ 1,600 ingesamel vir FareShare, 'n liefdadigheidsorganisasie in die Verenigde Koninkryk wat kos verskaf aan mense in nood. Bewonderaars, ontroer of net geamuseerd deur Chojnicka se kuns, het aan die organisasie geskenk deur die fondsinsamelingswebwerf JustGiving.

Toe sy besef dat haar vrugtige kuns die volgende het, besluit sy om oor te skakel na ander oorsake wat haar na aan die hart lê. Sy het gehelp om aandag te vestig op die Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, wat daarop gemik is om die land se energietekort die hoof te bied. Sy het gevoel dat sy naby die projek was, omdat sy vier jaar in Ethiopië gewerk het en gesê het dat die dam die potensiaal het om mense uit armoede te haal. ’ …

Onder haar gewildste stukke was 'n piesang wat sy in Februarie gemaak het, met die woord ‘banana ’ in verskillende tale. ‘Watter taal (e) praat jy? Sien u u taal hier? ’ vra sy in 'n onderskrif op die berig. Antwoorde het oor die hele wêreld ingestroom: Brasilië, die Verenigde State, Suid -Amerika, Afrika, Asië en Europa.

Die pos het uiteindelik afsonderlike gesprekke tussen mense aangevoer oor die ooreenkomste in hul tale, het Chojnicka gesê. …

Chhojnicka het gesê dat sy besef dat 'n piesang gekneus word om 'n skets te maak, nie almal se ding is nie. But for anyone who might want to give it a try, she has a few tips.”

The tips are fascinating. For example, she shows how to get different shades of brown by waiting different periods of time. Learn more at the Washington Post, here.

Deel dit:

Soos hierdie:


Inhoud

The harvesting, processing, and consuming of seafoods are ancient practices with archaeological evidence dating back well into the Paleolithic. [1] [2] Findings in a sea cave at Pinnacle Point in South Africa indicate Homo sapiens (modern humans) harvested marine life as early as 165,000 years ago, [1] while the Neanderthals, an extinct human species contemporary with early Homo sapiens, appear to have been eating seafood at sites along the Mediterranean coast beginning around the same time. [3] Isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan man, a 40,000-year-old anatomically modern human from eastern Asia, has shown that he regularly consumed freshwater fish. [4] [5] Archaeology features such as shell middens, [6] discarded fish bones and cave paintings show that sea foods were important for survival and consumed in significant quantities. During this period, most people lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and were, of necessity, constantly on the move. However, early examples of permanent settlements (though not necessarily permanently occupied), such as those at Lepenski Vir, were almost always associated with fishing as a major source of food.

The ancient river Nile was full of fish fresh and dried fish were a staple food for much of the population. [7] The Egyptians had implements and methods for fishing and these are illustrated in tomb scenes, drawings, and papyrus documents. Some representations hint at fishing being pursued as a pastime.

Fishing scenes are rarely represented in ancient Greek culture, a reflection of the low social status of fishing. However, Oppian of Corycus, a Greek author wrote a major treatise on sea fishing, the Halieulica of Halieutika, composed between 177 and 180. This is the earliest such work to have survived to the modern day. The consumption of fish varied in accordance with the wealth and location of the household. In the Greek islands and on the coast, fresh fish and seafood (squid, octopus, and shellfish) were common. They were eaten locally but more often transported inland. Sardines and anchovies were regular fare for the citizens of Athens. They were sometimes sold fresh, but more frequently salted. A stele of the late 3rd century BCE from the small Boeotian city of Akraiphia, on Lake Copais, provides us with a list of fish prices. The cheapest was skaren (probably parrotfish) whereas Atlantic bluefin tuna was three times as expensive. [9] Common salt water fish were yellowfin tuna, red mullet, ray, swordfish or sturgeon, a delicacy which was eaten salted. Lake Copais itself was famous in all Greece for its eels, celebrated by the hero of The Acharnians. Other fresh water fish were pike-fish, carp and the less appreciated catfish.

Pictorial evidence of Roman fishing comes from mosaics. [10] At a certain time the goatfish was considered the epitome of luxury, above all because its scales exhibit a bright red color when it dies out of water. For this reason these fish were occasionally allowed to die slowly at the table. There even was a recipe where this would take place in garo, in the sauce. At the beginning of the Imperial era, however, this custom suddenly came to an end, which is why mullus in the feast of Trimalchio (see the Satyricon) could be shown as a characteristic of the parvenu, who bores his guests with an unfashionable display of dying fish. [ aanhaling nodig ]

In medieval times, seafood was less prestigious than other animal meats, and often seen as merely an alternative to meat on fast days. Still, seafood was the mainstay of many coastal populations. Kippers made from herring caught in the North Sea could be found in markets as far away as Constantinople. [11] While large quantities of fish were eaten fresh, a large proportion was salted, dried, and, to a lesser extent, smoked. Stockfish, cod that was split down the middle, fixed to a pole and dried, was very common, though preparation could be time-consuming, and meant beating the dried fish with a mallet before soaking it in water. A wide range of mollusks including oysters, mussels and scallops were eaten by coastal and river-dwelling populations, and freshwater crayfish were seen as a desirable alternative to meat during fish days. Compared to meat, fish was much more expensive for inland populations, especially in Central Europe, and therefore not an option for most. [12]

Modern knowledge of the reproductive cycles of aquatic species has led to the development of hatcheries and improved techniques of fish farming and aquaculture. Better understanding of the hazards of eating raw and undercooked fish and shellfish has led to improved preservation methods and processing.

The following table is based on the ISSCAAP classification (International Standard Statistical Classification of Aquatic Animals and Plants) used by the FAO for the purposes of collecting and compiling fishery statistics. [13] The production figures have been extracted from the FAO FishStat database, [14] and include both capture from wild fisheries and aquaculture production.

Fish is a highly perishable product: the "fishy" smell of dead fish is due to the breakdown of amino acids into biogenic amines and ammonia. [46]

Live food fish are often transported in tanks at high expense for an international market that prefers its seafood killed immediately before it is cooked. Delivery of live fish without water is also being explored. [47] While some seafood restaurants keep live fish in aquaria for display purposes or for cultural beliefs, the majority of live fish are kept for dining customers. The live food fish trade in Hong Kong, for example, is estimated to have driven imports of live food fish to more than 15,000 tonnes in 2000. Worldwide sales that year were estimated at US$400 million, according to the World Resources Institute. [48]

If the cool chain has not been adhered to correctly, food products generally decay and become harmful before the validity date printed on the package. As the potential harm for a consumer when eating rotten fish is much larger than for example with dairy products, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has introduced regulation in the USA requiring the use of a time temperature indicator on certain fresh chilled seafood products. [49]

Fresh fish is a highly perishable food product, so it must be eaten promptly or discarded it can be kept for only a short time. In many countries, fresh fish are filleted and displayed for sale on a bed of crushed ice or refrigerated. Fresh fish is most commonly found near bodies of water, but the advent of refrigerated train and truck transportation has made fresh fish more widely available inland.

Long term preservation of fish is accomplished in a variety of ways. The oldest and still most widely used techniques are drying and salting. Desiccation (complete drying) is commonly used to preserve fish such as cod. Partial drying and salting is popular for the preservation of fish like herring and mackerel. Fish such as salmon, tuna, and herring are cooked and canned. Most fish are filleted prior to canning, but some small fish (e.g. sardines) are only decapitated and gutted prior to canning.

Seafood is consumed all over the world it provides the world's prime source of high-quality protein: 14–16% of the animal protein consumed worldwide over one billion people rely on seafood as their primary source of animal protein. [50] [51] Fish is among the most common food allergens.

Since 1960, annual global seafood consumption has more than doubled to over 20 kg per capita. Among top consumers are Korea (78.5 kg per head), Norway (66.6 kg per head) and Portugal (61.5 kg per head). [52]

The UK Food Standards Agency recommends that at least two portions of seafood should be consumed each week, one of which should be oil-rich. There are over 100 different types of seafood available around the coast of the UK.

Oil-rich fish such as mackerel or herring are rich in long chain Omega-3 oils. These oils are found in every cell of the human body, and are required for human biological functions such as brain functionality.

Whitefish such as haddock and cod are very low in fat and calories which, combined with oily fish rich in Omega-3 such as mackerel, sardines, fresh tuna, salmon and trout, can help to protect against coronary heart disease, as well as helping to develop strong bones and teeth.

Shellfish are particularly rich in zinc, which is essential for healthy skin and muscles as well as fertility. Casanova reputedly ate 50 oysters a day. [53] [54]

Over 33,000 species of fish and many more marine invertebrate species have been described. [55] Bromophenols, which are produced by marine algae, gives marine animals an odor and taste that is absent from freshwater fish and invertebrates. Also, a chemical substance called dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) that is found in red and green algae is transferred to animals in the marine food chain. When broken down, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is produced, and is often released during food preparation when fresh fish and shellfish are heated. In small quantities it creates a specific smell one associates with the ocean, but which in larger quantities gives the impression of rotten seaweed and old fish. [56] Another molecule known as TMAO occurs in fishes and give them a distinct smell. It also exists in freshwater species, but becomes more numerous in the cells of an animal the deeper it lives, so that fish from the deeper parts of the ocean has a stronger taste than species who lives in shallow water. [57] Eggs from seaweed contains sex pheromones called dictyopterenes, which are meant to attract the sperm. These pheromones are also found in edible seaweeds, which contributes to their aroma. [58] However, only a small number of species are commonly eaten by humans.

Common species used as seafood [59]
Mild flavour Moderate flavour Full flavour
Delicate
texture
basa, flounder, hake, scup, smelt, rainbow trout, hardshell clam, blue crab, peekytoe crab, spanner crab, cuttlefish, eastern oyster, Pacific oyster anchovy, herring, lingcod, moi, orange roughy, Atlantic Ocean perch, Lake Victoria perch, yellow perch, European oyster, sea urchin Atlantic mackerel
Medium
texture
black sea bass, European sea bass, hybrid striped bass, bream, cod, drum, haddock, hoki, Alaska pollock, rockfish, pink salmon, snapper, tilapia, turbot, walleye, lake whitefish, wolffish, hardshell clam, surf clam, cockle, Jonah crab, snow crab, crayfish, bay scallop, Chinese white shrimp sablefish, Atlantic salmon, coho salmon, skate, dungeness crab, king crab, blue mussel, greenshell mussel, pink shrimp escolar, chinook salmon, chum salmon, American shad
Firm
texture
Arctic char, carp, catfish, dory, grouper, halibut, monkfish, pompano, Dover sole, sturgeon, tilefish, wahoo, yellowtail, Abalone, conch, stone crab, American lobster, spiny lobster, octopus, black tiger shrimp, freshwater shrimp, gulf shrimp, Pacific white shrimp, squid barramundi, cusk, dogfish, kingklip, mahimahi, opah, mako shark, swordfish, albacore tuna, yellowfin tuna, geoduck clam, squat lobster, sea scallop, rock shrimp barracuda, Chilean sea bass, cobia, croaker, eel, blue marlin, mullet, sockeye salmon, bluefin tuna

There is broad scientific consensus that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) found in seafood are beneficial to neurodevelopment and cognition, especially at young ages. [60] [61] The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization has described fish as "nature's super food." [62] Seafood consumption is associated with improved neurologic development during pregnancy [63] [64] and early childhood [65] and more tenuously linked to reduced mortality from coronary heart disease. [66]

Fish consumption has been associated with a decreased risk of dementia, lung cancer and stroke. [67] [68] [69] A 2020 umbrella review concluded that fish consumption reduces all-cause mortality, cancer, cardiovascular disease, stroke and other outcomes. The review suggested that two to four servings per week is generally safe. [70]

The parts of fish containing essential fats and micronutrients, often cited as primary health benefits for eating seafood, are frequently discarded in the developed world. [71] Micronutrients including calcium, potassium, selenium, zinc, and iodine are found in their highest concentrations in the head, intestines, bones, and scales. [72]

Government recommendations promote moderate consumption of fish. The US Food and Drug Administration recommends moderate (4 oz for children and 8 - 12 oz for adults, weekly) consumption of fish as part of a healthy and balanced diet. [73] The UK National Health Service gives similar advice, recommending at least 2 portions (about 10 oz) of fish weekly. [74] The Chinese National Health Commission recommends slightly more, advising 10 - 20 oz of fish weekly. [75]

There are numerous factors to consider when evaluating health hazards in seafood. These concerns include marine toxins, microbes, foodborne illness, radionuclide contamination, and man-made pollutants. [71] Shellfish are among the more common food allergens. [76] Most of these dangers can be mitigated or avoided with accurate knowledge of when and where seafood is caught. However, consumers have limited access to relevant and actionable information in this regard and the seafood industry's systemic problems with mislabelling make decisions about what is safe even more fraught.

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is an illness resulting from consuming toxins produced by dinoflagellates which bioaccumulate in the liver, roe, head, and intestines of reef fish. [77] It is the most common disease associated with seafood consumption and poses the greatest risk to consumers. [71] The population of plankton which produces these toxins varies significantly over time and location, as seen in red tides. Evaluating the risk of ciguatera in any given fish requires specific knowledge of its origin and life history, information which is often inaccurate or unavailable. [78] While ciguatera is relatively widespread compared to other seafood-related health hazards (up to 50,000 people suffer from ciguatera every year), mortality is very low. [79]

Fish and shellfish have a natural tendency to concentrate inorganic and organic toxins and pollutants in their bodies, including methylmercury, a highly toxic organic compound of mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and microplastics. Species of fish that are high on the food chain, such as shark, swordfish, king mackerel, albacore tuna, and tilefish contain higher concentrations of these bioaccumulants. This is because bioaccumulants are stored in the muscle tissues of fish, and when a predatory fish eats another fish, it assumes the entire body burden of bioaccumulants in the consumed fish. Thus species that are high on the food chain amass body burdens of bioaccumulants that can be ten times higher than the species they consume. This process is called biomagnification.

Man-made disasters can cause localized hazards in seafood which may spread widely via piscine food chains. The first occurrence of widespread mercury poisoning in humans occurred this way in the 1950s in Minamata, Japan. Wastewater from a nearby chemical factory released methylmercury that accumulated in fish which were consumed by humans. Severe mercury poisoning is now known as Minamata disease. [80] [71] The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster and 1947 - 1991 Marshall Islands nuclear bomb testing led to dangerous radionuclide contamination of local sea life which, in the latter case, remained as of 2008. [81] [71]

A widely cited study in JAMA which synthesized government and MEDLINE reports, and meta-analyses to evaluate risks from methylmercury, dioxins, and polychlorinated biphenyls to cardiovascular health and links between fish consumption and neurologic outcomes concluded that:

"The benefits of modest fish consumption (1-2 servings/wk) outweigh the risks among adults and, excepting a few selected fish species, among women of childbearing age. Avoidance of modest fish consumption due to confusion regarding risks and benefits could result in thousands of excess CHD [congenital heart disease] deaths annually and suboptimal neurodevelopment in children." [66]

Due to the wide array of options in the seafood marketplace, seafood is far more susceptible to mislabeling than terrestrial food. [71] There are more than 1,700 species of seafood in the United States' consumer marketplace, 80 - 90% of which are imported and less than 1% of which is tested for fraud. [83] However, more recent research into seafood imports and consumption patterns among consumers in the United States suggests 35%-38% of seafood products are of domestic origin. [85] consumption suggests Estimates of mislabelled seafood in the United States range from 33% in general up to 86% for particular species. [83]

Byzantine supply chains, frequent bycatch, brand naming, species substitution, and inaccurate ecolabels all contribute to confusion for the consumer. [86] A 2013 study by Oceana found that one third of seafood sampled from the United States was incorrectly labelled. [83] Snapper and tuna were particularly susceptible to mislabelling, and seafood substitution was the most common type of fraud. Another type of mislabelling is short-weighting, where practices such as overglazing or soaking can misleadingly increase the apparent weight of the fish. [87] For supermarket shoppers, many seafood products are unrecognizable fillets. Without sophisticated DNA testing, there is no foolproof method to identify a fish species without their head, skin, and fins. This creates easy opportunities to substitute cheap products for expensive ones, a form of economic fraud. [88]

Beyond financial concerns, significant health risks arise from hidden pollutants and marine toxins in an already fraught marketplace. Seafood fraud has led to widespread keriorrhea due to mislabeled escolar, mercury poisoning from products marketed as safe for pregnant women, and hospitalization and neurological damage due to mislabeled pufferfish. [84] For example, a 2014 study published in PLOS One found that 15% of MSC certified Patagonian toothfish originated from uncertified and mercury polluted fisheries. These fishery-stock substitutions had 100% more mercury than their genuine counterparts, "vastly exceeding" limits in Canada, New Zealand, and Australia. [89]

Research into population trends of various species of seafood is pointing to a global collapse of seafood species by 2048. Such a collapse would occur due to pollution and overfishing, threatening oceanic ecosystems, according to some researchers. [90]

A major international scientific study released in November 2006 in the journal Wetenskap found that about one-third of all fishing stocks worldwide have collapsed (with a collapse being defined as a decline to less than 10% of their maximum observed abundance), and that if current trends continue all fish stocks worldwide will collapse within fifty years. [91] In July 2009, Boris Worm of Dalhousie University, the author of the November 2006 study in Wetenskap, co-authored an update on the state of the world's fisheries with one of the original study's critics, Ray Hilborn of the University of Washington at Seattle. The new study found that through good fisheries management techniques even depleted fish stocks can be revived and made commercially viable again. [92] An analysis published in August 2020 indicates that seafood could theoretically increase sustainably by 36–74% by 2050 compared to current yields and that whether or not these production potentials are realized sustainably depends on a number of factors "such as policy reforms, technological innovation and the extent of future shifts in demand". [93] [94]

The FAO State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2004 report estimates that in 2003, of the main fish stocks or groups of resources for which assessment information is available, "approximately one-quarter were overexploited, depleted or recovering from depletion (16%, 7% and 1% respectively) and needed rebuilding." [95]

The National Fisheries Institute, a trade advocacy group representing the United States seafood industry, disagree. They claim that currently observed declines in fish population are due to natural fluctuations and that enhanced technologies will eventually alleviate whatever impact humanity is having on oceanic life. [96]

For the most part Islamic dietary laws allow the eating of seafood, though the Hanbali forbid eels, the Shafi forbid frogs and crocodiles, and the Hanafi forbid bottom feeders such as shellfish and carp. [97] The Jewish laws of Kashrut forbid the eating of shellfish and eels. [98] In the Old Testament, the Mosaic Covenant allowed the Israelites to eat finfish, but shellfish and eels were an abomination and not allowed. [99] In ancient and medieval times, the Catholic Church forbade the practice of eating meat, eggs and dairy products during Lent. Thomas Aquinas argued that these "afford greater pleasure as food [than fish], and greater nourishment to the human body, so that from their consumption there results a greater surplus available for seminal matter, which when abundant becomes a great incentive to lust." [100] In the United States, the Catholic practice of abstaining from meat on Fridays during Lent has popularized the Friday fish fry, [101] and parishes often sponsor a fish fry during Lent. [102] In predominantly Roman Catholic areas, restaurants may adjust their menus during Lent by adding seafood items to the menu. [103]


21 October 2009

Panforte: the Italian strong bread

I'll always remember the road trip my family took through Italy six years ago. For one thing, it was the summer of the record-breaking heat wave in Europe 2003 there was one afternoon walking through the Roman Forum which would have seen us baked alive had it not been for the copious number of drinking fountains that Rome is so well known for. That was also the summer when my family learned that we should not go on road trips together. Sjoe. Let's just leave some of those stories untold. But, in between heat exhaustion and emotions running high over where we were going to eat next, there were some fantastic, happy moments that impressed themselves upon me deeply.
One of them was completely unexpected. It came on a day of visiting Assisi, birthplace of St. Francis. We were walking through the town, which is perched high on a hillside in Umbria. It was an overcast day, punctuated by intermittent showers that had us ducking into churches and shop doorways every now and then. One of the shops we took refuge in was a bakery. Surrounded by a vast array of incredible-looking creations, we decided to try some panforte for a morning snack. The shopkeeper cut off a wedge for us. It was a dense cake of dried fruits, nuts, and spices. much tastier than any Clif bar but probably just as good an energy source for the day. The wedge disappeared quickly as we meandered on through the streets of Assisi.
Days later, after visits south to Rome, Pompeii, and Accadia, we turned around and drove back north to Germany. Refueling in Tuscany, we noticed an exquisite array of biscotti and cakes in the gas station and asked, if by chance, they had any panforte . Sadly, they did not, and we were informed that they only offer it during the Christmas season. That made total sense to me, as the flavors of panforte ("strong bread") are reminiscent of those of the Lebkuchen ("life cake") that my German relatives make in their bakery from September through December.

So, it being October now, I believe we are well into panforte season too. I've looked around for a good recipe, and after tweaking one, I now have a recipe that I'll be enjoying for years to come. While it is called a cake, it is really more to be enjoyed as a confection in small pieces rather than as a slice of cake eaten with a fork. This sweet, fragrantly-spiced panforte is a luscious treat, and large wedges, decoratively wrapped, would make a great holiday gift. I hope you have a chance to try it out! I think the one I made a week and a half ago is in danger of disappearing just as quickly as the one we had in Assisi.
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Panforte
(adapted from Gourmet magazine)

4 teaspoons unsweetened Dutch-process cocoa powder
2/3 cup all-purpose flour
1 teelepel gemaalde kaneel
1/2 teaspoon ground ginger
1/8 teaspoon ground cloves
1/4 teelepel sout

1 cup whole almonds, toasted
1 cup whole hazelnuts, toasted and loose skins rubbed off with a kitchen towel
1 cup (8 oz.) soft dates, each cut into 6 pieces
1 cup (8 oz.) soft dried Mission figs, each cut into 6 pieces
1/2 cup soft golden raisins (4 oz.)
1/2 cup candied lemon peel (4 oz.)
1 teelepel. (packed) finely grated fresh lemon peel
3/4 cup sugar
2/3 cup honey
1 Tbs. botter

Line a 9-inch springform pan with parchment, using a round for bottom and a strip for side. (Lightly oiling the pan first will help keep the parchment paper in place.) Lightly but thoroughly grease the inside surfaces of the parchment with non-stick spray or vegetable oil.

Whisk together flour, spices, salt, and 4 teaspoons cocoa in a large bowl, then stir in nuts and fruit and lemon peel.

Bring sugar, honey, and butter to a boil in a 2-quart heavy saucepan over moderate heat, stirring until sugar is dissolved, then boil without stirring until a candy thermometer registers 238 to 240°F, about 2 minutes.

Immediately pour honey over fruit mixture and quickly stir until combined (mixture will be very thick and sticky if it cools and hardens too quickly, you might try setting the mixing bowl over a pan of simmering water, double boiler-style, as you stir, or try carefully microwaving a few seconds at a time in between stirs). Quickly spoon mixture into springform pan, spreading evenly with back of spoon. Dampen your hands and press mixture firmly and evenly into pan to compact as much as possible. Bake in middle of oven at 300°F until edges start to rise slightly and become matte, 50 to 55 minutes.

Cool panforte completely in pan on a rack, then remove side of pan and invert. Keeping parchment paper on, wrap well in plastic wrap and seal in a plastic bag. Store chilled one week to allow flavors to meld. Keeps up to one month when stored chilled. To serve, cut with a serrated knife into small pieces.


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